FEATURED,  First Aid


So MECHANISMS OF INJURY, The type of injury that a person sustains is directly related to how the injury is caused. In addition. whether a casualty sustains single or multiple injuries are also determined by the mechanisms that caused it.

This is the reason why the history of the incident is important. In many situations, this vital information can only be obtained by those people who deal with the casualty at the scene – often first aiders.

Look, too, at the circumstances in which an injury was sustained and the forces involved

The information is useful since it also helps the emergency services and medical team predict the type and severity of the injury and the treatment. This, therefore, helps the diagnosis, treatment, and likely outcome for the casualty.


The extent and type of injuries sustained due to impact – for example, a fall from a height or the impact of a car crash – can be predicted if you know exactly how the incident happened.

For example, a car occupant is more likely to sustain serious injuries in a side-impact collision than in a frontal collision at the same speed.

This is because the side of the car provides less protection and cannot absorb as much energy as the front of the vehicle.

A specific pattern of injuries can be suspected for a driver wearing a seatbelt whose vehicle is struck either head-on or from behind.

The driver’s body will be suddenly propelled one way, but the driver’s head will lag briefly before moving. This results in a “whiplashing” movement 0f the neck (below).

The casualty may also have injuries caused by the seatbelt restraint, for example, fracture of the breastbone and possibly bruising of the heart or lungs.

There may be injuries to the face due to contact with the steering wheel or an inflated airbag.


The head may be whipped backward and then rapidly forwards, or vice versa, due to sudden forces on the body, such as in a car crash.

This produces a whiplash injury, with strained muscles and stretched ligaments in the neck.

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