Here we describe techniques for the management of an unconscious adult who may require resuscitation.
Always approach and treat the casualty from the side, kneeling down next to his head or chest. You will then be in the correct position to perform all the stages of resuscitation: opening the airway; checking to breathe and giving chest compressions and rescue breaths (together called cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR)
At each stage in the process you will have decisions to make, for example, is casualty breathing? The steps are given here tell you what to do next.
The first priority is to open the casualty’s airway so that he can breathe or you can give rescue breaths. If normal breathing returns at any stage, you should place the casualty in the recovery position. If the casualty is not breathing, the early use of an AED may increase his chance of survival.
HOW TO MANAGING UNCONSCIOUS ADULTS RESPONSE
On discovering a collapsed casualty, you should first make sure the scene is safe and then establish whether he is conscious or unconscious. Do this by gently shaking the casualty’s shoulders. Ask “What has happened?” or give a command such as, “Open your eyes”. Always speak loudly and clearly to the casualty
CAUTION: Always assume that there is a neck injury and shake the shoulders very gently.
IF THERE IS A RESPONSE
1. If there is no further danger, leave the casualty in the position in which he was found, check for life-threatening injuries and summon help if needed.
2. Treat any condition found and monitor and record vital signs level of response, breathing, and pulse until emergency help arrives or the casualty recovers.
IF THERE IS NO RESPONSE
1. Shout for help. Leave the casualty in the position in which he was found and open the airway.
2. If you are unable to open the airway in the position in which he was found, roll him on to his back and open the airway.
How to open airway
Place one hand on his forehead. Gently tilt his head back. As you do this, the mouth will fall open slightly. Place the fingertips of your other hand on the point Of the casualty’s chin and lift the chin. Check the casualty’s breathing.
HOW TO CHECK BREATHING
Keeping the airway open, look, listen and feel for normal breathing: lock for chest movement; Listen for sounds of breathing; and feel for breaths on your cheek. Do this ‘or no more than ten seconds before deciding whether the casualty is breathing normally. Breathing may be agonal. If there is any doubt, act as if it is not normal.
IF THE CASUALTY IS BREATHING
Check the casualty for any life-threatening injuries, such as severe bleeding, and treat as necessary.
1. Place the casualty in the recovery position and call 999/112 for emergency help.
2. Monitor and record vital signs the level of response, breathing, and pulse while waiting for help to arrive.
IF THE CASUALTY IS NOT BREATHING
1.Send a helper to call 999/112 for emergency help. Ask the person to bring an AED if one is available. If you are alone, make the call yourself unless the condition is the result of drowning. Begin CPR with chest compressions.
HOW TO PLACE CASUALTY IN RECOVERY POSITION
If the casualty is found lying on his side or front, rather than his back, not all the following steps will be necessary to place him in the recovery position. If the mechanisms of injury suggest a spinal injury, treat as on.
1. Kneel beside the casualty, Remove his spectacles and any bulky objects, such as mobile phones or large bunches of keys, from his pockets. Do not search his pockets for small items.
2. Make sure that both Of the casualty’s legs are straight. Place the arm that is nearest to you at right angles to the casualty’s body, with the elbow bent and the palm facing upwards.
3.Bring the arm that is farthest from you across the casualty’s chest, and hold the back of his hand against the cheek nearest to you. With your other hand, grasp the far leg just above the knee and pull it up, keeping the foot flat on the ground.
4. Keeping the casualty’s hand pressed against his cheek, pull on the far leg, and roll the casualty towards you and on to his side.
5. Adjust the upper leg so that both the hip and the knee are bent at right angles.
6. Tilt the casualty’s head back and tilt his chin so that the airway remains open.
7. If necessary, adjust the hand under the cheek to keep the airway open.
8. If it has not already been O done. call 999/112 for emergency help. Monitor and record vital signs level of response, breathing, and pulse while waiting for help to arrive.
9. If the casualty has to be left in the recovery position for longer than 30 minutes, roll him on to his back, and then roll him on to the opposite side unless other injuries prevent you from doing this.
If you suspect a spinal injury and need to place the casualty in the recovery position because you can’t maintain an open airway, try to keep the spine straight using the following guidelines.
•If you are alone, use the technique shown opposite and above,
•If you have a helper, one of you should steady the head while the other turns the casualty (right).
•With three people, one person should steady the head while another turns the casualty, The third person should keep the casualty’s back straight during the maneuver.
•If there are four or more people in total. use the log-roll technique.